S.Sweetlin Devamanohari Msc., Mphil
Department of Computer application,
GTN Arts College, Dindigul.
Education involves transmitting and acquiring knowledge through teaching and learning, especially in a similar school or institution. The earliest educational processes involved sharing information about gathering food and providing shelter learning language and acquiring the values, behaviour, and religious rites or practices of a given culture. It is also called customary education or conventional education. The main motive of the earliest is to pass on the values, manners skills and to the next generation which is necessary for their survival. The students simply sit down together and listen to the teacher or another who will recite the lesson. But studying this is pointless because the people who come from rural backgrounds struggle to pursue higher education in comparison to students from urban areas, and government school students struggle to gain the confidence necessary to progress to the next level of education when compared to students from private institutions. To address this issue, the government introduced Education 4.0, which is very beneficial for rural and government students. It teaches about the skills required today that is the skills of science and technology, science of medical science etc. Besides listening, modern education includes writing, visualizing, imagination and thinking skills. As people’s needs change, the education system must also change and that change must be accepted by the population.
Keywords: Education, Technology, skills
முக்கிய வார்த்தைகள்: கல்வி, தொழில்நுட்பம்,திறன்கள்
In the age of information and communication technology, educational systems are required to rethink and rebuild a curriculum for computer literacy, on the other hand, to revitalize and enrich the learning environment for interaction between learner and learning resources. It is therefore necessary to review traditional teaching methods and replace them with new ways to equip learners with cognitive skills. Therefore, the use of information and communication technology is inevitable to achieve quality learning goals for everyone.
The system of Indian Higher education is the second largest in the world which fulfills the educational requirements of millions of students who come from different sections of the society since it is the student community that can help to generate healthy academic atmosphere in institutions of higher learning. No doubt that India faces today a number of problems pertaining to poverty unemployment disappearance of moral and spiritual values. But in the last few decades a countrywide problems/challenges have emerged in Higher Education system in India they are discussed as under. Our heterogeneous education system , based on geographical, rural urban, rich poor set up have posed in great challenge for the educational institutions. Varieties of colleges, universities, technical institutions have produced and different types and quality of Education. Some of them are really imparting qualitative education although a few others are doing the dirtiest job. Thanks to UGC, for publishing the list of such a fake Universities and Institutions indulging in educational malpractices.
Interference of political factors: Most of the Institutions, imparting education (Aided non-aided) are owned by the dominant political leaders, now playing key role in governing bodies of the Universities. They have established their own youth cells and encourage students’ organization on political basis. They exploit the students’ energy for their political purposes. The students forget their own objectives and begin to develop their career in politics. Modern technologies can play an important role in the skill, knowledge and motivation of students. In the era we are living today, the criterion of strength and superiority of countries is the amount of information generated, the breadth and speed of access of individuals to the correct and up-to-date information. Nowadays, other education is not limited to the closed school framework, and with the disappearance of borders and distances, it is accessible to everyone. The appropriate environment for learning is always on a wide and flexible basis with the help of information and communication tools, in such a way that the conditions for continuous education are provided for individuals.
Today, we are in the information society with the growth of technologies and the expansion of communication and information facilities. The characteristics of a society include: high density of information in the lives of most citizens; the use of compatible technology in a wide range of personal, social, educational and commercial activities; and the ability to transfer and receive digital data quickly between different locations regardless of distances. Information and communication technology is a technology that helps us capture, store, process, retrieve, transfer, and receive information. Information technology has revolutionized the way we do things. Information and communication technology is interdependent, so that information is considered to be a machine of work and communication. Information and communication technology is a force that changes many aspects of life.
Current Challenges in Education:
The successes listed above are not only numerical but point to the narrowness of the base of beneficiaries in India. Of the 27crore people who have registered on the e-Shram portal, 94% mention that they earn less than Rs 10,000 per month. The desperation among youngsters can be gauged when a person having a PhD, MTech and MCom degree applies for a peon’s job in Uttar Pradesh. No doubt a government job is preferable but one does not do an MTech to become a peon. Clearly, a large number of people don’t get a job appropriate to their degree or skill acquired. It is reported that substance abuse has grown among youngsters and so has violence within families.
While the number of educational institutions has increased, facilities by and large are inadequate due to a shortage of funds and corruption. This is mostly true of the private institutions also because of the managements’ desire to maximize their profits. No wonder, ASER reports since 2005 show that 50% of children in Class 5 in rural schools cannot read or write or do arithmetic of Class 2 level. So, effectively they have not acquired the basic skills, and drop out. Worse, they can only get menial jobs that pay little, and they will remain poor during their lifetime.
The 1991 New Economic Policy (NEP) brought about a paradigm shift. The role of teachers was undermined. Funding for education was curtailed. Regular appointments of teachers became a trickle and they were recruited as temporary, ad-hoc or as guests. As a result, a large number of teachers have become insecure, as they have no autonomy and are shamelessly exploited by the administration.
Teachers, especially the senior ones, rather than resisting these trends have been largely accepting them. Using the growing malpractices as an excuse, the policymakers, including academics in positions of authority, have imposed policies that are wholly unsuitable for teaching. These have been affected on the plea of disciplining teachers and attaining standards via standardization.
It has led to a decline in the self-esteem of teachers, and teaching and research have become mechanical. Inappropriate quantitative measures of efficiency used in offices have been imposed on teachers. Like, earning points for promotion under the new API (academic performance indicator) system. Many MPhil and PhDs are cut-and-paste jobs, not worth the paper they are written on. The attention is diverted from the quest for knowledge or imparting it to the students to beating the system. Standards rather than improvement have declined. Teaching is currently being undermined by the growing emphasis on technology. This is seen as a solution to the problem of indifferent teaching and inadequate funding. Courses devised in advanced countries are now recommended for introduction in Indian institutions.
What teachers need to do
Teachers need to agitate to de-bureaucratize their institutions and reform the teaching-learning process. The commitment to teaching and to the students has to be deepened. They have to teach students how to learn and make their own path rather than spoon feed them. They can be friends to the young and give them hope for the future so that they develop a positive attitude and become less frustrated. All this can happen only if teachers act collectively and become role models.
While much has been achieved in the field of education in numerical terms since independence, the crisis is in the content. In this sense, teachers have failed society by not playing the critical roles mentioned above and by failing to provide dynamism to society. The elite rulers have to bear a large part of the blame for this failure of teachers.
They have put systems in place that instead of encouraging knowledge generation promotes copying of ideas. This needs to change if society is to meet the growing challenges it faces. One can say, society is sliding down an abyss and only a reformed education system can stop the further decline and reverse it.
In concluding words, we can say that over the period of time, growth have been take place in higher education in terms of institutions, enrolments etc. but it is not sufficient. Indian economy is facing various challenges regarding higher education, which need to overcome through appropriate policy formation and their effective implementation. Higher education in India plays many roles. It is of extraordinary importance to many and reforms are often seen as significant threats to specific, social arrangements that provide benefits to powerful groups. The politics is the result and most often the changes are not implemented language has been a similar issue in which government attempted to solve in difficult social and political problem through policy relating to higher education. To conclude, Higher education in India is an extraordinarily important part of modern Indian society and it is intertwined in the political and social systems of the society. It is in need of change, development and important. In order to effectively plan for reforms and improvement, it is necessary to have in re apperceptions of what is possible and what is not.
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